Radd literally means “returned to.” When the total of the prescribed shares does not exhaust the entire estate, the balance left in the estate will be distributed according to either the Islamic law doctrine of radd (increasing the shares proportionately) or taʿsīb (where eligible heirs take the balance remaining in the estate).
If there are no residuary heirs, the Islamic doctrine of radd is used to increase the share of each Qur’anic heir proportionately.
An example of radd is when the survivors are a mother and one daughter: the mother’s prescribed share is 1/6 and the daughter’s prescribed share is 1/2. After the take their shares, there remains a 1/3 balance in the estate but no residuary heirs to take it. So the mother and daughter’s shares will be increased proportionately with the doctrine of radd: the mother will receive 1/6 + [1/4 x 1/3] = 1/4 and the daughter will receive 1/2 + [3/4 x 1/3] = 3/4.
But—if in addition to the mother and daughter—a full brother survives, radd will not apply—and it becomes a taʿsīb matter. As shown in the first example,, the brother will receive the balance remaining in the estate (1/3).
Remainder rules exclude spouses from taking more than their predetermined share. However, there is authority that says if there are no other Islamic heirs in category 1 and 2 (taʿsīb through self and taʿsīb derived through another), then the spouse is entitled to take the remainder.
Again, when the predetermined share that Islamic heirs take is not 100% of the estate, the remainder must be distributed according to the remainder rules, either radd or taʿsīb.
Does radd apply to your estate? Use our INHERITANCE CALCULATOR to discover your Islamic heirs and their shares.