While taʿsīb and radd apply when distributing the balance left over in the estate after the prescribed shares, ‘awl applies to decrease the shares proportionately when the total prescribed shares is more than 100% of the estate.
For example, if the survivors are a husband and two sisters, the husband’s prescribed share is 1/2 and the sisters’ combined prescribed share is 2/3. The total of the prescribed share exceeds 100% of the estate:
1/2 + 2/3 = 3/6 + 4/6
3/6 + 4/6 = 7/6
7/6 = 1 1/6
Their shares will be reduced proportionately by using the doctrine of ‘awl: the husband will receive 3/7 and the sisters will receive 4/7.
Does ‘awl apply to your estate? Use our INHERITANCE CALCULATOR to discover your Islamic heirs and their shares.