I have a child born outside of marriage. Does this child inherit according to Islamic law? Is there a way to give them a portion of my estate without violating Sharī‘a
First, it is important to note that unlike American state law, a valid marriage under Sharī‘a has minimal requirements: oral marriages and polygamy are valid. Islamic public policy favors legitimacy rather than illegitimacy.
With that in mind, according to Sharī‘a inheritance rules, a relative inherits automatically as part of the fixed default-distribution system. Under Sharī‘a, only biological children from a valid marriage are Islamic heirs entitled to inherit from the paternal line. An illegitimate child (a child born outside of marriage) is not an heir under Sharī‘a; they take the name of their mother and inherit only from the maternal side.
However, that doesn’t mean the child would not be entitled to inherit through bequests. Sunni Islamic law permits you to leave up to 1/3 of your estate in the aggregate to non-Islamic heirs. If you want to leave something for illegitimate children, for example, you can leave up to 1/3 of your estate for them to share.
Use our ISLAMIC WILL software to prepare your own customized Islamic estate plan that is legally valid for your state, which will allow you to leave a bequest for children born outside of marriage.
I am an American Muslim. Does the Sharī‘a require me to have a will?
[embed]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZyzVXkddFsg[/embed] Many Muslim scholars living in the United States suggest that American Muslims are obligated to have an Islamic will, because without one, the estate will be divided according to non-Islamic laws. If you leave a surviving spouse and you did not leave a will, your parents, for example, would not inherit, under many state intestacy laws. According to Sharī‘a, a will that leaves a bequest is either obligatory, recommended, disliked, or prohibited, depending on the circumstances. The obligatory bequest is one you must make. An example of this is when you owe someone a debt, but no one knows about this debt except you and the creditor. In this case, you must include the debt in your will. Another example is if you are wealthy and have poor relatives that are not eligible Sharī‘a heirs; you are obligated to leave them something. The recommended bequest is one you should strongly consider. For example, if your Islamic heirs and relatives are wealthy and not in need, leaving part of your estate for charity is recommended. The disliked bequest is not recommended. For example, if your estate is not large, your Islamic heirs and relatives are poor, and you leave part of your small estate to non-Islamic heirs, the scholars concluded such a bequest is disliked, because it will create hardship for your family. The prohibited bequest is not allowed under Sharī‘a. For example, it is prohibited to leave more than 1/3 of your estate to non-Islamic heirs or to give an Islamic heir more than his or her share as stated in the Qur’an. This is based on the famous Hadith of the Prophet that says “there shall be no bequest to an Islamic heir.” Unlike the Sunni opinion, the Ja‘fari (Shia) school permits a bequest to an Islamic heir as long as it does not exceed 1/3 of the estate. To summarize, if you want your estate to be distributed according to the Sharī‘a, you must have an Islamic will. Use our ISLAMIC WILL software to prepare your own customized Islamic estate plan that is legally valid for your state.Read More
What is an estate plan?
A standard estate plan includes a Will, a healthcare directive/living will, and a durable power of attorney. A will is not complicated or expensive. You do not need to be rich to have a will. Even if you have minimal assets, a will ensures your property is distributed according to your wishes, you select your burial wishes, appoint guardians for minor children, select the person you trust to manage your affairs after your death, and so much more. A will does not cover all your assets. Any asset that you own with a pre-selected beneficiary - like insurance policies naming your spouse or your children as beneficiaries, or a retirement account naming your spouse as a beneficiary, or a property you own with another person with the right of survivorship - passes directly to your selected beneficiary outside of the will. The will covers all other assets that form your estate. In your durable power of attorney (POA) you appoint an agent to act on your behalf when you are unable to do so yourself. The POA gives your agent the power to transact real estate, enter into financial transactions, and make other legal decisions as if he or she were you. This type of power of attorney terminates at your death and you are free to revoke this type of POA at any time prior to death. A health care directive/ living will designates another individual (typically a spouse or family member) to make important healthcare decisions on your behalf in the event of incapacity. Of course, you should select someone you trust, who shares your views, and who would likely recommend a course of action you would agree with to act as your power of attorney and health care agent. They do not have to be the same person. As with all appointments, a backup or alternate guardian, power of attorney and/or health care agent should be named as well. Absent these designations, a court will appoint a person to handle your affairs. With a standard estate plan (a Will, a healthcare directive/living will, and a durable power of attorney) your financial and non-financial end of life affairs will be in order and according to your wishes and you protect your family.Read More